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Sustainability Accounting Standards Board Framework


WM ( is North America’s largest comprehensive waste management environmental solutions provider. Previously known as Waste Management and based in Houston, Texas, WM is driven by commitments to put people first and achieve success with integrity. The company, through its subsidiaries, provides collection, recycling and disposal services to millions of residential, commercial, industrial and municipal customers throughout the U.S. and Canada. With innovative infrastructure and capabilities in recycling, organics and renewable energy, WM provides environmental solutions to and collaborates with its customers in helping them achieve their sustainability goals. This report was prepared following the SASB Waste Management Sustainability Accounting Standard, Version 2018-10, using the reporting entity described in the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022. All data is as of December 31, 2022, for calendar year 2022, unless otherwise noted.

2023 SASB Report

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions
  2. Fleet Fuel Management
  3. Air Quality
  4. Management of Leachate & Hazardous Waste
  5. Labor Practices
  6. Workforce Health & Safety
  7. Recycling & Resource Recovery
  8. Activity Metric

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

SASB Code Sustainability Metric Unit of Measure Response
SASB Code: IF-WM-110a.1 Sustainability Metric:
  • Gross global scope 1 emissions
  • Percentage covered under emissions-limiting regulation
  • Percentage covered under emissions-reporting regulation
Unit of Measure:
  • Metric tons (t) CO2e
  • Percentage (%)
  • Percentage (%)
  • 15,321,737
    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventory receives 3rd party verification annually.
  • 75%
  • 79%
SASB Code: IF-WM-110a.2 Sustainability Metric:
  • Total landfill gas generated
  • Percentage flared
  • Percentage used for energy
Unit of Measure:
  • Million British Thermal Units (MMBtu)
  • Percentage (%)
  • Percentage (%)
  • 112,579,309
  • 55%
  • 45%
  • Landfill gas converted to energy is a measure of energy produced via WM Renewable Energy (WMRE) facilities both WM owned and third -party operated. Note, landfill gas processed at a WMRE facility has a higher energy content than the enterprise-wide average energy content.
SASB Code: IF-WM-110a.3 Sustainability Metric: Discussion of long-term and short-term strategy or plan to manage scope 1 and lifecycle emissions, emissions reduction targets, and an analysis of performance against those targets Unit of Measure: n/a Response:

WM has set circularity and climate impact goals to reduce our carbon footprint. We are making meaningful investments in landfill gas capture and landfill emissions measurement, as well as continuing to transition our fleet to run on alternative fuels. Additionally, we help enable our customers to reduce their own emissions through recycling, renewable energy and sustainability services. The goals we have set to support our climate objectives include:

  • • WM commits to reduce absolute scope 1 and 2 GHG emissions 42% by 2031, from a 2021 base year*,
  • • Target beneficial use of captured landfill gas to 65% by 2026
  • • Achieve a fleet made up of 70% alternative fuel vehicles, of which 50% are allocated renewable natural gas by 2025
  • • Increase recovery of materials by 60% to 25 million tons by 2030, using a 2021 baseline, including an interim milestone of a 25% increase by 2025

WM has committed to a near-term carbon reduction target to achieve 42% reduction in direct scope 1 and 2 emissions from our operations by 2031. Our near-term climate target has been approved and validated by the Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi). GHG emissions from landfills represent more than 80% of our total emissions, and therefore is the primary focus to meet our climate impact target. Alternative fuels in our collection fleet, and increased renewable electricity usage at controlled facilities, provide complementary emission reduction opportunities.

To realize emission reductions from our landfills, we are making sizeable investments to increase the amount of landfill gas captured and beneficially reused. Key activities and investments include expansion of existing gas collection systems, construction of new gas collection systems, installation of automated wellheads, acceleration of landfill capping activities and enhancement of measurement and reporting capabilities across our landfill network.

Renewable Energy

WM is a leader in beneficial use of landfill gas and has long-term growth potential to further this opportunity. We develop, operate and promote projects for the beneficial use of landfill gas through our WM Renewable Energy business. Landfill gas is produced naturally as waste decomposes in a landfill. The methane component of the landfill gas is a readily available, renewable energy source that can be gathered and used beneficially as an alternative to fossil fuel. As of December 31, 2022, we had 135 landfill gas beneficial use projects producing commercial quantities of methane gas at our owned or operated landfills.

The beneficial use of captured landfill gas has long-term growth potential. Landfill gas can be captured and used to fuel vehicles or electrify homes. WM beneficially used 45% of captured landfill gas in 2022. WM has announced plans to make significant, multi-year investments in our landfillgas-to-energy projects over the next several years. In 2022, renewable energy generated from WM’s landfill gas-to-energy program resulted in 54,504,000 MMBtu of renewable energy and avoided almost two million metric tons CO2e. By 2026, we expect the result of these investments to be operational, with over 20 renewable natural gas facilities expected to generate an estimated 28 million MMBtu per year.


WM continues to reduce emissions associated with our collection fleet by converting our conventional fleet to alternative fuel vehicles. WM has focused primarily on transitioning more than 60% of our entire collection fleet to alternative fuel vehicles, including lower emission compressed natural gas vehicles, and allocating renewable natural gas to 47% of those alternative fuel vehicles.

Material Recovery

WM managed over 14.8M tons of materials for recycling in 2022, which has the potential to avoid over 25 million metric tons of CO2 equivalent. Capturing more recyclable materials will help reduce the use and sourcing of virgin materials, ultimately reducing lifecycle emissions generated from processing virgin materials. For the coming years, WM has announced over 40 planned recycling infrastructure projects to develop new material recovery facilities or upgrade existing facilities with automation. To continue to increase the amount of material we manage, we are investing in automation technology which can help capture additional materials for recycling and has potential to produce higher quality recyclables through improved sorting.

*The target boundary includes land-related emission and removals from bioenergy feedstocks.

Fleet Fuel Management

SASB Code Sustainability Metric Unit of Measure Response
SASB Code: IF-WM-110b.1 Sustainability Metric:
  • Fleet fuel consumed
  • Percentage natural gas
  • Percentage renewable
Unit of Measure:
  • Gigajoules
  • Percentage (%)
  • Percentage (%)
  • 23,038,879
  • 58%
  • 26%
SASB Code: IF-WM-110b.2 Sustainability Metric: Percentage of alternative energy vehicles in fleet Unit of Measure: Percentage (%) Response: 61%

Air Quality

SASB Code Sustainability Metric Unit of Measure Response
SASB Code: IF-WM-120a.1 Sustainability Metric: Air emissions of the following pollutants:
  • NOX (excluding N2O)
  • SOX
  • Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs)
  • Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs)
Unit of Measure: Metric tons (t) Response:
  • 4,774
  • 780
  • 104
  • not reported
  • Air emissions data is reported in metric tons per year based on emissions at landfill sites.
SASB Code: IF-WM-120a.2 Sustainability Metric: Number of facilities in or near areas of dense population Unit of Measure: Number Response: 122 active or closed landfills within an urbanized area, 146 within 5 km of an urbanized area, 181 outside of an urbanized area.

Environmental Justice data is updated bi-annually. Last update Sept 2021. See the Environmental Justice section of our ESG Resource Hub.
SASB Code: IF-WM-120a.3 Sustainability Metric: Number of incidents of non-compliance associated with air emissions Unit of Measure: Number Response: 3

Management of Leachate and Hazardous Waste

SASB Code Sustainability Metric Unit of Measure Response
SASB Code: IF-WM-150a.1 Sustainability Metric:
  • Total toxic release inventory (TRI) releases
  • Percentage of TRI releases to water
Unit of Measure:
  • Metric tons (t)
  • Percentage (%)
  • Released to Air: 5
    Released to Water: 0
    RCRA Subtitle C: 12,174
    Underground Injection: 2,369
    Transfer Off-Site to Treatment / Containment: 63
  • < 1%
TRI data is reported a year behind; 2021 data is presented above.
SASB Code: IF-WM-150a.2 Sustainability Metric: Number of corrective actions implemented for landfill releases Unit of Measure: Number Response: Our modern landfill liners continue to perform as designed, not allowing releases through the liner that would require corrective action to clean up groundwater under neighboring properties.
SASB Code: IF-WM-150a.3 Sustainability Metric: Number of incidents of non-compliance associated with environmental impacts Unit of Measure: Number Response: 7 formal enforcement actions and 6 reported spills in 2022

Labor Practices

SASB Code Sustainability Metric Unit of Measure Response
SASB Code: IF-WM-310a.1 Sustainability Metric: Percentage of active workforce covered under collective bargaining agreements Unit of Measure: Percentage (%) Response: 17%
SASB Code: IF-WM-310a.2 Sustainability Metric:
  • Number of work stoppages
  • Total days idle
Unit of Measure:
  • Number
  • Days
  • 0 lockouts; 0 strikes
  • 0

Workforce Health & Safety

SASB Code Sustainability Metric Unit of Measure Response
SASB Code: IF-WM-320a.1 Sustainability Metric:
  • Total recordable injury rate (TRIR)
Unit of Measure:
  • Rate
  • TRIR = 3.02
  • Safety data is subject to change past this publish date, as incidents may become reportable. For additional safety metrics, see also our ESG Data Center.
SASB Code: IF-WM-320a.2 Sustainability Metric: Safety Measurement System BASIC percentiles for:
  1. Unsafe Driving
  2. Hours-of-Service Compliance
  3. Driver Fitness
  4. Controlled Substances/Alcohol
  5. Vehicle Maintenance
  6. Hazardous Materials Compliance
Unit of Measure: Percentile (%) Response:
  1. 2.13%
  2. 0.00%
  3. 8.23%
  4. 0.08%
  5. 29.78%
  6. 0.00%
The Safety Measurement System (SMS) uses data from roadside inspections and crash reports from the last two years, and data from investigations to identify and intervene with motor carriers that pose the greatest risk to safety. FMCSA updates the SMS once a month and organizes the data into seven Behavior Analysis and Safety Improvement Categories (BASICs). The SMS groups carriers by BASIC with other carriers that have a similar number of safety events and then ranks carriers and assigns a percentile to prioritize them for interventions.
SASB Code: IF-WM-320a.3 Sustainability Metric: Number of vehicle accidents and incidents Unit of Measure: Number Response: SASB methodology for this metric does not align with industry practice for safety reporting; please refer to the safety section of our Sustainability Report and ESG Data Center for more information.

Recycling & Resource Recovery

SASB Code Sustainability Metric Unit of Measure Response
SASB Code: IF-WM-420a.1 Sustainability Metric:
  • Amount of waste incinerated at owned and operated facilities
  • Percentage of waste incinerated that is hazardous
  • Percentage of waste incinerated for energy recovery
Unit of Measure:
  • Metric tons (t)
  • Percentage (%)
  • Percentage (%)
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
WM does not own or operate waste incineration facilities.
SASB Code: IF-WM-420a.2 Sustainability Metric:
  • Percentage of customers receiving
  • Recycling services, by customer type
  • Composting services, by customer type
Unit of Measure: Percentage (%) Response: Recycling Services:
Commercial = 29%
Industrial = 9%
Residential = 73%

Organics Services:
Commercial = <1%
Industrial = <1%
Residential = 39%

Commercial, industrial, and residential customers served under municipal contracts are included in the above categories.
SASB Code: IF-WM-420a.3 Sustainability Metric: Amount of material
  1. Recycled
  2. Composted
  3. Processed as waste-to-energy
Unit of Measure: Short tons (t) Response:
  1. 11,029,964
  2. 3,801,595
  3. 0

Tonnage reported reflects managed materials at WM owned and operated facilities. Composted includes organic material composted, mulched or processed in CORe® facilities.
SASB Code: IF-WM-420a.4 Sustainability Metric:
  • Amount of electronic waste collected
  • Percentage recovered through recycling
Unit of Measure:
  • Short tons (t)
  • Percentage (%)
  • 7,660
  • 95%

Activity Metric

SASB Code Sustainability Metric Unit of Measure Response
SASB Code: IF-WM-000.A Activity Metric: Number of customers by category: 
  1. Municipal
  2. Commercial
  3. Industrial
  4. Residential
Unit of Measure: Number Response:
  1. Municipal = 2,748
  2. Commercial = 828,842
  3. Industrial = 176,536
  4. Residential = 1,484,329

The scope of “residential” shall only include those residential customers that have direct contracts with the entity. For the purposes of this disclosure, residential customers serviced through contracts with a municipality shall be considered in the “municipal” category.
SASB Code: IF-WM-000.B Activity Metric: Vehicle fleet size Unit of Measure: Number Response: 18,545 collection vehicles
11,307 alternative energy vehicles
SASB Code: IF-WM-000.C Activity Metric: Number of
  1. Landfills,
  2. Transfer stations,
  3. Recycling centers
  4. Composting centers,
  5. Incinerators
  6. All other facilities
Unit of Measure: Number Response:
  1. 259
  2. 337
  3. 97
  4. 41
  5. 0
  6. 135 landfill gas-to-energy facilities
    181 natural gas fueling stations

This includes WM owned and operated facilities.